Category Archives: Uncategorized

CBDC and United States Postal Service

The United States Postal Service was interested in the Cradle to Cradle philosophy and a movement towards more sustainable business practice. This first stage of the ongoing effort was completed in September 2010. Areas of the USPS business that CBDC looked at include alternative fuels for transportation, greener production facilities, recycling or ‘upcycling’ processes for waste but the predominate focus was on the USPS range of envelopes and packages.

2 years of design research and work on the USPS product range where MBDC established 350 component materials which a further comprise 1800 individual ingredients. An important aspect of the MBDC approach is the recognition that a business is an economical and financial unit and much of its work is the practical integration of sustainable design into the business.

For UPS to achieve the certification on its product range involved working with 20 primary and 250 additional suppliers across the world in assessing and changing the materials that make up the product. Today there are 700 million certified envelopes and packages produced annually. USPS as a business and MBDC as consultants recognize the significanceof an ongoing process and a long term approach. A corporation can’t change its process overnight and would never undertake environmental practice if it were uneconomical. USPS currently has a sustainability department with key areas of focus and an implementation strategy that was developed with and will continue to work on with MBDC.


Continental Subculture 1900 – 1950 – ?: Dada, Expressionism, Art Deco, Constructivism, Futurism.

The above movements represent various forms of avant garde dissatisfaction with the status quo, the need for cultural change and an emphasis on the future rather than the past. The movements are deeply intertwined and only differ in respects such as the coinage of a name originating from a particular country, an aesthetic style, or slight philosophical differences between the groups. As the movements encompass a broad range of ideas and arts within the period there are as many contradictions as there are similarities.


Dada was an aggressive rejection of the past and preoccupied with destroying the status quo in a time of moral, spiritual, economic and political turmoil presumably to make way for a healthier culture to flourish in its absence. It originated in Switzerland and was primarily a philosophical and ideological movement that  was represented in the arts. Over time as european artists moved overseas Dada soon broke its continental levees and was synthesised into various international art groups. Famous examples include Duchamp’s readymade urinal and Schwitter’s poems and collage.


Expressionism is an academic term used primarily for grouping painting from this period but can be expanded to include any medium within the arts that champions free expression. The expressionist whether in film, painting or poetry was concerned with expressing himself and rather than being confined to traditional objective methods of expression. An expressionist’s work is subjective. Members from the other groups could be said to be expressionist or use expressionist methods .


Constructivism originated in Russia and like Dada was an active rejection of the past. Particular to Russia, having recently reintroduced a limited capitalist policy, this included promoting capitalism through new forms of graphic and commercial art. This movement while ideologically runs parallel and was associated with other continental groups was largely preoccupied with issues of national politics.


Futurism came from Italy and was associated with its leader Filippo Marinetti. The movement spread all over Europe and it manifestations in painting, design and architecture became indistinguishable from  Dada, Constructivism and Expressionism. Futurism could be said to represent a more positive emphasis of the future rather than an aggressive rejection of the past in the case of Dada.

Art Deco

Art Deco is the aesthetic synthesis of the above ideas primarily into architecture and design while some artists have been said to be described as Art Deco. Art Deco survived well into the sixties. The idea evolved into the modern idea of functionality.